domingo, 8 de noviembre de 2015

The uses of our Thai Hand Mayor Ingredient Zingiber Cassumunar (Plai) part II

Plai has long been regarded by Thai massage therapists as one of those oils necessary to have in their kit to combat joint and muscle problems. Plai is of the same family as ginger but different properties and more intense actions.
Commercial name: PLAI (in Thailand)
Botanical Name: Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.
Family: Zingiberaceae
Plant Native to: Thailand, Indonesia, India
Part Used: Rhizome, fresh – steam distillation
Active Chemicals: Sabinene (25-45%), gamma-Terpinene (5-10%), alpha-Terpinene (2-5%), Terpinen-4-ol (25-45%), and (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)butadiene – in text as DMPBD (1-10%).
Analgesic, anti-neuralgic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, anti-viral, carminative, digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, laxative, rubefacient, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge.
Aches and pains, inflammations, joint problems, muscle spasms, sprains and strains, torn muscles and ligaments asthma, catarrh, chronic colds, colic, constipation, diarrhea, fevers, flatulence, heartburn, immune problems, influenza, nausea, respiratory problems,.
Vancouver, Canada
A.) Analgesic, anti-neuralgic, anti-inflammatory, sprains and strains, torn muscles and ligaments: For inflamed joints, under a certified aroma therapist direction Plai has been found to ease the pain for up to 18 hours. This is incredible since no other oil has been found to change pain levels. On joints that were inflamed due to injury, Plai and an approved carrier was best combined with oils such as Black Pepper and Lemon or Neroli, Himalayan Cedar and Orange. These combinations worked to take swelling down, calm pain and speed up healing time considerably. Dilutions were one bottle of 10% concentration in a vegetable gel and a small roller bottle with no dilution – blends were all oils equal parts.
B.)Anti-histaminic: Plai, while being of the ginger family, does not possess the classic heat that is common to the rhizomes. It has a cooling action on inflamed areas, be them joints and muscles or kidneys and lungs. Clients have found that using Plai for asthma along with Tarragon (or Rosemary) and Cypress causes the attacks to greatly diminish in intensity. There is a long term
C.) Irritable Bowel Syndrome: With digestive upsets, Plai along with Black Pepper, Orange and Tarragon has been used to counter irritable bowel syndrome. This blend was used across the abdomen after each bowel movement or anytime there were any cramping or pain in the abdominal area. Within three applications, all problems calmed down.
D.) Menstrual cramping: has had the same relief from a blend with Linden Blossom, Plai, Marjoram and Orange. This was applied across the lower back and front abdomen every 15 minutes until pain subsided. It was found that after three applications all cramps ceased and blood clots diminished.
Berkley, USA
Post operative surgical: Plai, Nutmeg and Lemon have been used as a post operative surgical blend on a knee surgery. These were equal amounts in 10% concentration in a roller bottle and applied above and below the surgical area. Tissue inflammation and swelling was significantly lower than in an area that had had the same surgery without the use of the Plai. With the Plai blend, no normal narcotics were needed to control the post surgical pain.
Dr Daniel Penoel and Pierre Francome, Ph.D. in “L’aromatherapie Exactement”: Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. is anti-inflammatory, carminative, antipyretic, and a bronchodilator. They suggest that it could be useful for asthma, digestive problems, dysmenorrhoea, and inflammation of the colon.
Safety Data
Vancouver, Canada & Berkley, USA No side effects were recorded. LD50= 2.15 g/kg
Resource Data
1.) Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research at Chatuchak – “…has done research on the anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil of Z. Cassumunar. The most active component DMPBD was twice potent than reference drug DICLOFENAC (VOLTAROL)…”. (NB: Diclofenac (or Voltarol as it is probably better known), a phenylacetic acid derivative, is a Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID). It is used mainly as the sodium salt for the relief of pain and inflammation in various conditions: musculoskeletal and joint disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis; peri-articular disorders such as bursitis and tendinitis; soft-tissue disorders such as sprains and strains; and other painful conditions such as renal colic, acute gout, dysmenorrhoea, and following some surgical procedures. It has also been used in some countries for the management of fever. Diclofenac diethylamine is used topically as a gel containing the equivalent of 1% diclofenac sodium for the local symptomatic relief of pain and inflammation. Voltarol is presently one of the strongest known antiinflammatory drugs available, but several adverse effects have been reported [Wilkens, RF. Worldwide clinical safety with diclofenac. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 1985; 15 (suppl. 1): 105-10].)
2.) Thai Institute in Chiang Mai: ” …Using the model of carrageen-induced hind paw oedema in rats, individual assessment of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of the five major components of the oil demonstrated that DMPBD, Terpinen-4-ol and a-Terpinene significantly inhibited oedema formation, whereas Sabinene and g-Terpinene were inactive up to 6 mg….”.
3.) Early study, the anti-inflammatory activity of DMPBD, found in the hexane extract of Z. cassumunar, was assessed using various inflammatory models in comparison with aspirin, indometacin and prednisole. Results: anti-inflammatory effect mediated prominently on the acute phase of inflammation…”
4.) Masuda, T., A. Jitoe, et al. (1995). Isolation and structure determination of cassumunarins A, B, and C: New anti-inflammatory antioxidants from a tropical ginger, Zingiber cassumunar. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 72(9): 1053-1057. {a} Faculty of Human Life Science, Osaka City Univ., Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558, Japan
5.) Jitoe, A., T. Masuda, et al. (1994). Novel antioxidants, cassumunarin A, B, and C, from Zingiber cassumunar. Tetrahedron Letters 35(7): 981-984. {a} Dep. Bot., Univ. Tex., Austin, TX 78713, USA
6.) Masuda, T. and A. Jitoe (1994). Antioxidative and antiinflammatory compounds from tropical gingers: Isolation, structure determination, and activities of cassumunins A, B, and C, new complex curcuminoids from Zingiber cassumunar. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42(9): 1850-1856. {a} Fac. Human Life Sci., Osaka City Univ., Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558, Japan
7.) Piromrat, K., M. Tuchinda, et al. (1986). Antihistaminic effect of “Plai” (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.) on histamine skin test in asthmatic children. Siriraj Hospital Gazette 38(4): 251-256.
8.) Chem. Pharm. Bull (Tokyo) 1991 Sep; 39(9): 2353-6
Anti-inflammatory effect of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and its active principles.
by Ozaki Y, Kawahara N, Harada M. Division of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.
The present study was carried out to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanol extract obtained from the rhizomes of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and its active principles. The methanol extract was partitioned between ether and water, and then the ether-soluble fraction was extracted with n-hexane. Three compounds were isolated from the n-hexane-soluble fraction and the chemical structures of these compounds were identified as (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-1-ene, (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)butadiene and zerumbone. The anti-inflammatory activity of these fractions was investigated on carrageenin-induced edema in rats, as well as on acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and writhing symptoms in mice. The methanol extract (p.o.) showed both anti-inflammatory activity and analgesic activity. These activities shifted successively to ether-soluble and n-hexane-soluble fractions and to (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-1-ene. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory action and analgesic action of Zingiber cassumunar is the result of the (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-1-ene that it contains.

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